The Hydnaceae family is in the Cantharellales order. Until recently, species of Cantharellus and Craterellus were in the Cantharellaceae family and the coral-like species of Clavulina and Multiclavula were in the Clavulinaceae family. The Cantharellaceae family no longer exists and species in the generas Cantharellus and Craterellus are now nested within the Hydnaceae family. The Hydnaceae family members feature downward-pointing spore-bearing spines rather than vein-like spore-bearing structures. Despite these differences, they are closely related genetically. Until recently, we tended to call chanterelles found in North America, Cantharellus cibarius. We now know this appears to be a European mushroom, genetically different from North American species. Molecular and morphological analysis has revealed that there are numerous species within the N.A. Cantharellus cibarius complex, with more to be discovered. Among those currently known to exist east of the Rockies are Cantharellus persicinus (syn. Cantharellus spectataculus, Cantharellus flavus, Cantharellus enelensis, Cantharellus deceptivus, Cantharellus phasmatis, Cantharellus lateritius, Cantharellus appalachiensis, Cantharellus velutinus, Cantharellus tenuithrix, Cantharellus tabernensis, Cantharellus iuventateviridis, Cantharellus camphoratus and Cantharellus chicagoensis. Not all of these are documented as occuring in the northeast. (See article by B. Buyck, I. Olariaga, B. Looney, J. Justice, & V. Hofstetrter, ‘Wisconsin Chanterelles Revisited and First Indications for Very Wide Distributions of Cantharellus Species in the United States East of the Rocky Mountains’ in Cryptogamie, Micologie, 2016, 37 (3): 345-346). In fact, there are several other species of chanterelles that will be found in the northeast. Many of the specimens I have found, unfortunately do not appear to correspond to newly described species and without phylogentic analysis, I am often left to guess or just give up on naming what we have. Of course, I acknowledge, these facts will not deter anyone from eating the yellow, yellow-orange or pinkish-orange cibaria-like chanterelles. Chanterelles are chanterelles, no matter their scientific names.

As for the spined or toothed species of Hydnum found in eastern North America, there are currently about sixteen identified different respresentatives. Some of the most commonly of these include Hydnum albidum, varieties of Hydnum repandum, Hydnum albomagnum and Hydnum rufescens. Recently identified species of easteren N.A. include Hydnum alboaurantiacum, Hydnum cuspidatum, Hydnum ferrugineus, Hydnum subconnatum, Hydnum subtilor, and Hydnum vagabundumFew can be distinguished by observable morphological features alone. (See article entitled ’Six New Species and Reports of Hydnum (Cantharellales) from eastern North America"  in journal MycoKeys of 2018, issue 42, pp. 35-72 authored by Rachel A/ Swenie, Timothy J. Baroni, and Brandon Matheny.) To view photos and descriptions of fungi in the Hydnaceae family, please click on the thumbnails features below.