MUSHROOM UNIVERSITY Study Links recommended by Gary Lincoff

Contribute to our knowledge of morel locations: http://morelmushroomhunting.com/morel_progression_sightings_map.htm

Here are a few of articles and references to articles on line about orchids, Pyrola, and other plants associated with ectomycorrhizae.
There’s more than basketful of articles available.
Gary


Articles available online include: "The evolutionary history of mycorrhizal specificity among lady's slipper orchids" and "Saprotrophic fungal mycorrhizal symbionts in achlorophyllic orchids"

From Tom Horton's profile (seen on Google): Another study investigates the mycorrhizal associations of Epipactis helleborine in New York. This orchid was first recorded in Syracuse in the late 1800s and has since spread across North America. The orchid is associated with ascomycetes, especially truffle species in the genus Tuber. Tuber is a below ground fruiting (hypogeous) fungus best known for the prized edible species in Europe. We have evidence for a number of unidentified Tuber species associated with the orchid in New York, some of which may also have been introduced. Tuber species can be found in a variety of habitats, which may have supported the naturalization and invasion of the orchid across the continent. Dave Muska, Jess Rumburg, Maria Moskalenko (former undergrad students)


Fungal associates of Pyrola rotundifolia, a mixotrophic Ericaceae, from two Estonian boreal forests.
Vincenot LTedersoo LRichard FHorcine HKõljalg USelosse MA.
Source
Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive (CNRS, UMR 5175), Equipe Interactions Biotiques, 1919 Route de Mende, 34293, Montpellier Cedex 5, France. lucie.vincenot@cefe.cnrs.fr
Abstract
Pyrola rotundifolia (Ericaceae, Pyroleae tribe) is an understorey subshrub that was recently demonstrated to receive considerable amount of carbon from its fungal mycorrhizal associates. So far, little is known of the identity of these fungi and the mycorrhizal anatomy in the Pyroleae. Using 140 mycorrhizal root fragments collected from two Estonian boreal forests already studied in the context of mixotrophic Ericaceae in sequence analysis of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region, we recovered 71 sequences that corresponded to 45 putative species in 19 fungal genera. The identified fungi were mainly ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes, including Tomentella, Cortinarius, Russula, Hebeloma, as well as some ectomycorrhizal and/or endophytic ascomycetes. The P. rotundifolia fungal communities of the two forests did not differ significantly in terms of species richness, diversity and nutritional mode. The relatively high diversity retrieved suggests that P. rotundifolia does not have a strict preference for any fungal taxa. Anatomical analyses showed typical arbutoid mycorrhizae, with variable mantle structures, uniseriate Hartig nets and intracellular hyphal coils in the large epidermal cells. Whenever compared, fungal ultrastructure was congruent with the molecular identification. Similarly to other mixotrophic and autotrophic pyroloids in the same forests, P. rotundifolia shares its mycorrhizal fungal associates with surrounding trees that are likely a carbon source for pyroloids.